The cricket rules displayed on this page here are for the traditional form of cricket which is called "Test Cricket". However there are other formats of the game eg. How well do you know the rules of cricket? This book of rules of Cricket would help German business travelers to understand and appreciate the game as well as to understand India and its people by.
Constitution and Club rulesThis book of rules of Cricket would help German business travelers to understand and appreciate the game as well as to understand India and its people by. Die Laws of Cricket sind die vom Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) herausgegeben Cricketregeln, die weltweit die Grundlage für die Sportart Cricket bilden. Spielplatz und Regeln. Cricket Spielregeln – Wir spielen unsere Spiele nach MCC Laws of Cricket ( Code 4th Edition – ). Bitte werfen Sie einen Blick.
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The Laws state that, throughout an innings, "the ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls". At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not.
A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can and usually does bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs which are termed a "spell".
The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice versa.
The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at "square leg" now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice versa.
Protective clothing includes pads designed to protect the knees and shins , batting gloves or wicket-keeper's gloves for the hands, a safety helmet for the head and a box for male players inside the trousers to protect the crotch area.
The only fielders allowed to wear protective gear are those in positions very close to the batsman i. Subject to certain variations, on-field clothing generally includes a collared shirt with short or long sleeves; long trousers; woolen pullover if needed ; cricket cap for fielding or a safety helmet; and spiked shoes or boots to increase traction.
The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, in limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead.
White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left. The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers i.
The bat is made of wood, usually salix alba white willow , and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle.
The blade must not be more than 4. The ball has a "seam": six rows of stitches attaching the leather shell of the ball to the string and cork interior.
The seam on a new ball is prominent and helps the bowler propel it in a less predictable manner. During matches, the quality of the ball deteriorates to a point where it is no longer usable; during the course of this deterioration, its behaviour in flight will change and can influence the outcome of the match.
Players will, therefore, attempt to modify the ball's behaviour by modifying its physical properties. Polishing the ball and wetting it with sweat or saliva is legal, even when the polishing is deliberately done on one side only to increase the ball's swing through the air , but the acts of rubbing other substances into the ball, scratching the surface or picking at the seam are illegal ball tampering.
During normal play, thirteen players and two umpires are on the field. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team.
The other nine players in the batting team are off the field in the pavilion. The image with overlay below shows what is happening when a ball is being bowled and which of the personnel are on or close to the pitch.
One of the two umpires 1; wearing white hat is stationed behind the wicket 2 at the bowler's 4 end of the pitch. The bowler 4 is bowling the ball 5 from his end of the pitch to the batsman 8 at the other end who is called the "striker".
The other batsman 3 at the bowling end is called the "non-striker". The wicket-keeper 10 , who is a specialist, is positioned behind the striker's wicket 9 and behind him stands one of the fielders in a position called " first slip " While the bowler and the first slip are wearing conventional kit only, the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper are wearing protective gear including safety helmets, padded gloves and leg guards pads.
While the umpire 1 in shot stands at the bowler's end of the pitch, his colleague stands in the outfield, usually in or near the fielding position called " square leg ", so that he is in line with the popping crease 7 at the striker's end of the pitch.
The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases The bowler 4 intends to hit the wicket 9 with the ball 5 or, at least, to prevent the striker 8 from scoring runs.
The striker 8 intends, by using his bat, to defend his wicket and, if possible, to hit the ball away from the pitch in order to score runs.
Some players are skilled in both batting and bowling, or as either or these as well as wicket-keeping, so are termed all-rounders.
Bowlers are classified according to their style, generally as fast bowlers , seam bowlers or spinners. Batsmen are classified according to whether they are right-handed or left-handed.
Of the eleven fielders, three are in shot in the image above. The other eight are elsewhere on the field, their positions determined on a tactical basis by the captain or the bowler.
Fielders often change position between deliveries, again as directed by the captain or bowler. If a fielder is injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him, but the substitute cannot bowl or act as a captain, except in the case of concussion substitutes in international cricket.
Most bowlers are considered specialists in that they are selected for the team because of their skill as a bowler, although some are all-rounders and even specialist batsmen bowl occasionally.
The specialists bowl several times during an innings but may not bowl two overs consecutively. If the captain wants a bowler to "change ends", another bowler must temporarily fill in so that the change is not immediate.
A bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up" and an over is deemed to have begun when the bowler starts his run-up for the first delivery of that over, the ball then being "in play".
This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into miscuing his shot, for example, so that the ball just touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.
A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" in a slower, steeper parabolic path to lure the batsman into making a poor shot.
The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.
There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed: five relatively common and five extremely rare. The common forms of dismissal are bowled ,  caught ,  leg before wicket lbw ,  run out  and stumped.
If the batsman is out, the umpire raises a forefinger and says "Out! Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team.
In order to begin batting the batsman first adopts a batting stance. Standardly, this involves adopting a slight crouch with the feet pointing across the front of the wicket, looking in the direction of the bowler, and holding the bat so it passes over the feet and so its tip can rest on the ground near to the toes of the back foot.
A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to the best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade.
If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ". The batsman does not have to play a shot and can allow the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper.
Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat. Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run.
A wide variety of shots are played, the batsman's repertoire including strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: e.
The batsman on strike i. To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either their bats or their bodies the batsmen carry their bats as they run.
Each completed run increments the score of both the team and the striker. The decision to attempt a run is ideally made by the batsman who has the better view of the ball's progress, and this is communicated by calling: usually "yes", "no" or "wait".
More than one run can be scored from a single hit: hits worth one to three runs are common, but the size of the field is such that it is usually difficult to run four or more.
In these cases the batsmen do not need to run. If an odd number of runs is scored by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-striker is now the striker.
Only the striker can score individual runs, but all runs are added to the team's total. Additional runs can be gained by the batting team as extras called "sundries" in Australia due to errors made by the fielding side.
This is achieved in four ways: no-ball , a penalty of one extra conceded by the bowler if he breaks the rules;  wide , a penalty of one extra conceded by the bowler if he bowls so that the ball is out of the batsman's reach;  bye , an extra awarded if the batsman misses the ball and it goes past the wicket-keeper and gives the batsmen time to run in the conventional way;  leg bye , as for a bye except that the ball has hit the batsman's body, though not his bat.
The captain is often the most experienced player in the team, certainly the most tactically astute, and can possess any of the main skillsets as a batsman , a bowler or a wicket-keeper.
Within the Laws, the captain has certain responsibilities in terms of nominating his players to the umpires before the match and ensuring that his players conduct themselves "within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws".
The wicket-keeper sometimes called simply the "keeper" is a specialist fielder subject to various rules within the Laws about his equipment and demeanour.
He is the only member of the fielding side who can effect a stumping and is the only one permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards.
Generally, a team will include five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers, plus the wicket-keeper. The game on the field is regulated by the two umpires , one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg" which is about 15—20 metres away from the batsman on strike and in line with the popping crease on which he is taking guard.
The umpires have several responsibilities including adjudication on whether a ball has been correctly bowled i.
The umpires are authorised to interrupt or even abandon a match due to circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or deterioration of the light.
Off the field in televised matches, there is usually a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence.
The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test and Limited Overs International matches played between two ICC full member countries.
These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws and the spirit of the game.
The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official scorers , one representing each team.
The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire see image, right. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out has been dismissed ; he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs.
The scorers are required by the Laws to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice, they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game.
A match's statistics are summarised on a scorecard. Prior to the popularisation of scorecards, most scoring was done by men sitting on vantage points cuttings notches on tally sticks and runs were originally called notches.
Pratt of Sevenoaks and soon came into general use. Besides observing the Laws, cricketers must respect the "Spirit of Cricket," which is the "Preamble to the Laws," first published in the code, and updated in , and now opens with this statement: .
The Preamble is a short statement that emphasises the "Positive behaviours that make cricket an exciting game that encourages leadership, friendship, and teamwork.
The major responsibility for ensuring fair play is placed firmly on the captains, but extends to all players, umpires, teachers, coaches, and parents involved.
The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. They are required under the Laws to intervene in case of dangerous or unfair play or in cases of unacceptable conduct by a player.
Previous versions of the Spirit identified actions that were deemed contrary for example, appealing knowing that the batsman is not out but all specifics are now covered in the Laws of Cricket, the relevant governing playing regulations and disciplinary codes, or left to the judgement of the umpires, captains, their clubs and governing bodies.
The terse expression of the Spirit of Cricket now avoids the diversity of cultural conventions that exist in the detail of sportsmanship — or its absence.
Women's cricket was first recorded in Surrey in It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the International Cricket Conference in and took up its current name in It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, Limited Overs Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals.
Each member nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in its country, selects the national squad, and organises home and away tours for the national team.
The table below lists the ICC full members and their national cricket boards: . Cricket is a multi-faceted sport with multiple formats that can effectively be divided into first-class cricket , limited overs cricket and, historically, single wicket cricket.
The highest standard is Test cricket always written with a capital "T" which is in effect the international version of first-class cricket and is restricted to teams representing the twelve countries that are full members of the ICC see above.
Although the term "Test match" was not coined until much later, Test cricket is deemed to have begun with two matches between Australia and England in the —77 Australian season ; since , most Test series between England and Australia have been played for a trophy known as The Ashes.
If the ball crosses the boundary rope after it has bounced at least once from leaving the bat then 4 runs are given.
If the ball goes over the boundary rope without bouncing then 6 runs are awarded to the batting team. One team will bat first and one team will field first.
The batting team will try and score as many runs as possible in the allotted time whilst the bowling team will try and contain them by fielding the ball.
The teams then swap and the second team batting will try and outscore the runs their opponents scored first. If they fail they lose, if they succeed they win.
Cricket Rules Photo credit: Prescott Pym source. The original player is free to return to the game as soon as they have recovered from their injury.
To apply the law and make sure the cricket rules are upheld throughout the game there are two umpires in place during games. Umpires are responsible for making decisions and notifying the scorers of these decisions.
Two umpires are in place on the playing field while there is also a third umpire off the field who is in charge of video decisions. This is where the call is too close for the on field umpires and they refer it to the third umpire who reviews slow motion video replays to make a decision.
Fielding positions in cricket for a right-handed batsman. Test cricket is a game that spans over two innings.
This means that one team needs to bowl the other team out twice and score more runs then them to win the match. Another key difference between test cricket and other forms of cricket is the length of the innings.
In test cricket there is no limit to the innings length. The only limits in test cricket is a 5 day length.
Before the game begins an official will toss a coin. Ever since the ComBat incident, a highly publicised marketing attempt by Dennis Lillee , who brought out an aluminium bat during an international game, the Laws have provided that the blade of the bat must be made of wood.
Law 6: The pitch. The pitch is a rectangular area of the ground 22 yards The Ground Authority selects and prepares the pitch, but once the game has started, the umpires control what happens to the pitch.
The umpires are also the arbiters of whether the pitch is fit for play, and if they deem it unfit, with the consent of both captains can change the pitch.
Professional cricket is almost always played on a grass surface. Law 7: The creases. This Law sets out the dimensions and locations of the creases.
The bowling crease, which is the line the stumps are in the middle of, is drawn at each end of the pitch so that the three stumps at that end of the pitch fall on it and consequently it is perpendicular to the imaginary line joining the centres of both middle stumps.
The popping crease, which determines whether a batsman is in his ground or not, and which is used in determining front-foot no-balls see Law 21 , is drawn at each end of the pitch in front of each of the two sets of stumps.
The popping crease must be 4 feet 1. Although it is considered to have unlimited length, the popping crease must be marked to at least 6 feet 1.
The return creases, which are the lines a bowler must be within when making a delivery, are drawn on each side of each set of the stumps, along each sides of the pitch so there are four return creases in all, one on either side of both sets of stumps.
Each return crease terminates at one end at the popping crease but the other end is considered to be unlimited in length and must be marked to a minimum of 8 feet 2.
Diagrams setting out the crease markings can be found in Appendix C. Law 8: The wickets. The wicket consists of three wooden stumps that are 28 inches The stumps are placed along the bowling crease with equal distances between each stump.
They are positioned so that the wicket is 9 inches Two wooden bails are placed on top of the stumps. The bails must not project more than 0.
There are also specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the wickets and bails for junior cricket.
The umpires may dispense with the bails if conditions are unfit i. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the Laws.
Law 9: Preparation and maintenance of the playing area. When a cricket ball is bowled it almost always bounces on the pitch, and the behaviour of the ball is greatly influenced by the condition of the pitch.
As a consequence, detailed rules on the management of the pitch are necessary. This Law contains the rules governing how pitches should be prepared, mown, rolled, and maintained.
Law Covering the pitch. The pitch is said to be 'covered' when the groundsmen have placed covers on it to protect it against rain or dew.
The Laws stipulate that the regulations on covering the pitch shall be agreed by both captains in advance. The decision concerning whether to cover the pitch greatly affects how the ball will react to the pitch surface, as a ball bounces differently on wet ground as compared to dry ground.
The area beyond the pitch where a bowler runs so as to deliver the ball the 'run-up' should ideally be kept dry so as to avoid injury through slipping and falling, and the Laws also require these to be covered wherever possible when there is wet weather.
Law Intervals. There are intervals during each day's play, a ten-minute interval between innings, and lunch, tea and drinks intervals.
The timing and length of the intervals must be agreed before the match begins. There are also provisions for moving the intervals and interval lengths in certain situations, most notably the provision that if nine wickets are down, the lunch and tea interval are delayed to the earlier of the fall of the next wicket and 30 minutes elapsing.
Law Start of play; cessation of play. Play after an interval commences with the umpire's call of "Play", and ceases at the end of a session with a call of "Time".
The last hour of a match must contain at least 20 overs, being extended in time so as to include 20 overs if necessary. Law Innings.
Before the game, the teams agree whether it is to be one or two innings for each side, and whether either or both innings are to be limited by time or by overs.
In practice, these decisions are likely to be laid down by Competition Regulations, rather than pre-game agreement. In two-innings games, the sides bat alternately unless the follow-on Law 14 is enforced.
An innings is closed once all batsmen are dismissed, no further batsmen are fit to play, the innings is declared or forfeited by the batting captain, or any agreed time or over limit is reached.
The captain winning the toss of a coin decides whether to bat or to bowl first. Law The follow-on. In a two innings match, if the side batting second scores substantially fewer runs than the side which batted first, then the side that batted first can require their opponents to bat again immediately.
The side that enforced the follow-on has the chance to win without batting again. For a game of five or more days, the side batting first must be at least runs ahead to enforce the follow-on; for a three- or four-day game, runs; for a two-day game, runs; for a one-day game, 75 runs.
The length of the game is determined by the number of scheduled days play left when the game actually begins. Law Declaration and forfeiture.
The batting captain can declare an innings closed at any time when the ball is dead. He may also forfeit his innings before it has started. Law The result.
The side which scores the most runs wins the match. If both sides score the same number of runs, the match is tied. However, the match may run out of time before the innings have all been completed.
In this case, the match is drawn.